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Mary: Theology, Culture, Devotion & Theotokos: Citing sources

Designed for graduate and undergraduate classes, but useful for anyone doing research on Mary, the Mother of Jesus

Citing your sources

Scholarship takes into account what has gone before, whether agreeing or disagreeing with previous opinions.  Citing your sources is an integral part of scholarship.

Be sure to cite any source you've used, online or paper, whether a book, chapter, article, essay, interview, Web site, e-mail, wiki, radio or TV program, or telephone conversation!

Chicago Style

This manual is available in an online version. LMU only

Note: 16th edition published in Fall, 2010; online version allows access to both 16th and 15th editions.

Citing Sacred Texts: Chicago Style

Here are some segments of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., relevant for Biblical and other Sacred Scripture references.  Remember, you'll need to use your MyLMU login and password to access from off campus. 

Scriptural references for various religions, 8.102–3.

See also religious works   

Biblical citations:

    abbreviations in, 10.45–51

    chapter and verse, 14.253

    punctuation of, 6.60, 9.27

    resources on, 14.252

    versions of Bible in, 14.254

Biblical references are given in numerals only; chapter and verse are separated by a colon with no space following it. For abbreviations, see 10.45–51.

MLA Guide in the Library

Citation Styles

Note: Your instructor may direct you to use a format not included here, or may direct you to use a variation of one of these formats. Be sure to make yourself aware of each instructor's preference, and be consistent within your paper.


The Chicago Manual of Style is used in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Many of the theology and philosophy faculty prefer this style.


The Modern Language Association style is used in the fields of language and literature.


The American Psychological Association style is used in the social sciences, business, anthropology, and some of the life sciences. Not usually used for theological papers.


Patroness of Cuba


Our Lady of Charity of El Cobre

Photo in the public domain

Writing Help!

The Academic Resource Center (The ARC) is a place to get help with your writing and your citation concerns.  The link below is to a whole LibGuide dedicated to answering your questions about writing and citation for different disciplines.  The ARC is also the place you can get  individual tutoring in almost any class you're taking, as well as connect to scheduled drop-in sessions for writing and other disciplines... like Math!

Click below for the Writing LibGuide.

Citation Helps

SBL Style

This is the manual for the Society of Biblical Literature, used for any contributions to their publications.